Grant List: Completed Grants

Effects of Prenatal Diet on Mother and Child

Grant received by: Gillman (HPHC)
Grant number: R01 HD034568
Dates active: 7/1/98-6/30/04
Funding Institution: NIH

Objective:
To examine prenatal diet, birth outcomes and infant cognition in a cohort of mother-child pairs.

Specific Aims:
1. Maternal intake of trans fatty acids is inversely associated with fetal growth, length of gestation and infant cognitive development.
2. Maternal intake of n-3 fatty acids is directly associated with fetal growth, length of gestation, and infant cognitive development.
3. Maternal intake of calcium is inversely associated with incidence of pre-eclampsia and blood pressure level in infancy.
4. Maternal intake and red blood cell level of n-3 fatty acids are inversely associated with incidence of pre-eclampsia.

Funded Assays:
1. RBC fatty acids-mom: 1551 collected at 2nd trimester. Analysis completed
2. Plasma fatty acids- mom: 268 collected at 2nd trimester. Analysis completed

Diet, Immune Modulation and Asthma in Early Life

Grant received by: Weiss (BWH)
Grant number: R01 HL 075504
Dates active: 1998-2002
Funding Institution: NHLBI

Objective:
To examine prenatal diet and immune function at birth.

Specific Aims:
To examine the following hypotheses:
1.Maternal dietary n-3 fatty acid levels assessed in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) will be correlated with n-3 fatty acid levels in cord blood at birth.
2.Infants with high cord blood levels of n-3 fatty acids at birth will also have reduced lymphocyte proliferative responses to cockroach, dust mite, and beta-lactoglobin; reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and increased levels of IFN-ϒ).
3. High cord blood levels of n-3 fatty acids and reduced lymphoproliferative responses to cockroach, dust mite, and beta-lactoglobin will independently predict decreased development of allergic disease (asthma/wheeze, atopic dermatitis, food allergy, and allergic rhinitis) at Age three.

Funded Assays:
1. Cytokines - cord: 446 collected at Delivery. Analysis completed
2. Lymphocyte proliferation - cord: 478 collected at Delivery. Analysis completed

Assessment of the Nutritional Status of Children in an HMO Using the Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System

Grant received by: Gillman (HPHC)
Grant number: 200-95-0957/ Task order 0957-007
Dates active: 10/1/99-9/30/03
Funding Institution: CDC

Objective:
To look at infant feeding and child growth.

Specific Aims:
To examine in a longitudinal study design associations between parental attitudes about and strategies used in feeding infants and infant intake and growth.

Nutrition in Pregnancy, Birth Weight, and Childhood Asthma (Dietazma)

Grant received by: Gillman (HPHC)
Grant number: R01 HL64925
Dates active: 09/15/00-7/31/05
Funding Institution: NHLBI

Objective:
To examine the potential impact of maternal diet during pregnancy on the development of asthma and related disorders in early childhood, and to clarify the relationship between size at birth and incident asthma.

Specific Aims:
1. To evaluate associations of intake of specified nutrients and foods during pregnancy with the incidence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis, and with levels of total serum IgE and peripheral blood eosinophil count, at the age of 3 to 4 years.
2. To clarify the relationship between birthweight and asthma incidence.
3. To provide additional validation data for the food frequency questionnaires used during pregnancy

Funded Assays:
1. Total IgE - child: 766 collected at Early Childhood. Analysis completed
2. Eosinophil count - child: 793 collected at Early Childhood. Analysis completed
3. Complete blood count - child: 793 collected at Early Childhood. Analysis completed
4. Lead – child: 503 collected at Early Childhood. Analysis completed
5. 25(OH)D – child: 183 collected at Early Childhood. Analysis completed

Maternal Periodontis and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

Grant received by: Pitiphat
Grant number: R03 DE14004
Dates active: 2001-2005
Funding Institution: NIDCR

Objective:
To examine relationships of periodontitis and inflammation with pregnancy outcomes.

Specific Aims:
1. To examine the effect of maternal periodontal infection on adverse pregnancy outcomes.
2. To explore a potential pathway of the periodontal infection-adverse pregnancy outcomes association.

Funded Assays:
CRP - mom: 327 collected at 1st trimester. Analysis completed

Patient-Oriented Research in Early-Life Origins of CVD

Grant received by: Gillman (HPHC)
Grant number: K24 HL068041
Dates active: 7/1/01-07/31/12
Funding Institution: NHLBI

Objective:
To focus intensively on patient-oriented research using a life-course approach to understanding cardiovascular disease.

Specific Aims:
1. To undertake a research project to examine associations among maternal gestational protein intake, placental hormone activity, and blood pressure in the offspring.  This project will take advantage of the infrastructure provided by an ongoing NIH-funded prospective cohort study of pregnant women and their offspring (Project Viva).
2. To provide a nourishing professional environment for the training and advancement of beginning clinical researchers, who will conduct and analyze data from Project Viva and other ongoing patient-oriented research studies in the area of the life-course approach to chronic disease. Major foci will be in the areas of pregnancy and infancy determinants of:
A. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors, chiefly blood pressure
B. Asthma in early childhood
C. Development of obesity in childhood and adolescence.

Funded Assays:
1.Cortisol – cord: 362 collected at Delivery. Analysis completed
2. Cortisone - cord: 362 collected at Delivery. Analysis completed
3. Adiponectin - cord: 880 collected at Delivery. Analysis completed
4. Adiponectin - cord: 730 collected at Early Childhood. Analysis completed
5. Leptin – child: 729 collected at Early Childhood. Analysis completed
6. Leptin – child: 615 collected at Mid-childhood. Analysis completed
7. Adiponectin - child: 615 collected at Mid-childhood. Analysis completed
5. IGF-1 - child: 648 collected at Mid-childhood. Analysis completed
6. IGFBP-3 - child: 648 collected at Mid-childhood. Analysis completed
7. sTNF-R2 – child: 615 collected at Mid-childhood. Analysis completed
8. IL-6 – child: 615 collected at Mid-childhood. Analysis completed
9. hs-CRP - child: 615 collected at Mid-childhood. Analysis completed

Maternal Risk Factors, Placental Compromise and Infant Blood Pressure

Grant received by: Huh (CHB)
Dates active: 2002-2005
Funding Institution: PSDP

Objective:
To examine maternal protein intake, fetal glucocorticoid exposure, and infant blood pressure.

Specific Aims:
1. Examine the association between mothers' protein intake during pregnancy and blood pressure in their infant offspring.
2. Examine the association between maternal protein intake during pregnancy and activity of placental 11b hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase as measured by venous cord blood glucocorticoid levels.
3. Examine the association between the activity of placental 11b hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and infant blood pressure level.
4. Examine the extent to which the association of maternal protein intake with infant blood pressure is mediated by altered activity of placental 11b hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.
5. Examine the associations between pregnancy intakes of seafood, taurine and glycine and offspring blood pressure at age 6 months.
6. Examine the associations between pregnancy intakes of seafood, taurine and glycine and placental 11b hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 activity, as measured by venous cord blood glucocorticoid levels.

Societal Factors, Stress Hormones, and Preterm Birth

Grant received by: Rich-Edwards (BWH)
Grant number: 20-FY03-27
Dates active: 03/01/02-02/28/05
Funding Institution: March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation

Objective:
To continue the original project examining maternal experiences of racism or violence as predictors of the risk of preterm birth; the associations of second trimester levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) with the risk of preterm birth; and the degree to which CRH levels are associated with maternal experiences of racism or violence.

Specific Aims:
To continue to examine the hypothesis from the original project:
1. : Maternal experience and fear of violence, and, among African Americans, racial discrimination, are associated with an increased likelihood of preterm delivery.
2. Levels of CRH measured at 26-28 weeks’ gestation are:

A. Elevated among women who subsequently deliver prematurely, compared with women who deliver at term;
B. Positively associated with fetal adrenal hormone output, measured as cortisol sulfate and estriol in maternal plasma.

3. Levels of CRH are higher among women who are African American, taking account of maternal socioeconomic position, maternal age, prepregnancy weight, prior history of prematurity or spontaneous abortion, and cigarette smoking.
4. Maternal experience and fear of violence, and, among African Americans, racial discrimination, are positively associated with levels of CRH.

Funded Assays:
1. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) - mom: 1011 collected at 2nd Trimester. Analysis completed
2. Cortisol sulfate – mom: 71 collected at 2nd Trimester. Analysis completed
3. Estriol – mom: 73 collected at 2nd Trimester. Analysis completed
4. Cytokines – mom: 951 collected at 2nd Trimester. Analysis completed
5. CRP (ELISA) – mom : 953 collected at 2nd Trimester. Analysis completed

Maternal Fish Consumption, Mercury, and Infant Cognition

Grant received by: Oken (HPHC)
Grant number: P30 ES00002 (Pilot)
Dates active: 1/1/03—3/30/04
Funding Institution: NIEHS

Objective:
To examine associations among prenatal fish consumption, mercury, and child cognition.

Specific Aims:
1. To determine the range of levels of mercury biomarkers in a US pregnancy cohort.
2. To perform a preliminary investigation of the relationship between maternal fish consumption during pregnancy and biomarkers of mercury.
3. To perform a preliminary investigation of the relationship between mercury biomarkers and infant cognition which will serve as pilot data for a planned R01 submission.

Funded Assays:
1. Mercury (RBC) - mom: 380 collected at 2nd Trimester. Analysis completed
2. Mercury - cord: 17 collected at Delivery. Analysis completed
3. Mercury (hair) - mom: 146 collected at Delivery. Analysis completed

Predictors of Antenatal and Postpartum Depression

Grant received by: Rich-Edwards (HPHC)
Grant number: R01 MH 068596
Dates active: 07/01/03-06/30/06
Funding Institution: NIMH

Objective:
To determine factors predicting depression during pregnancy and the postpartum period using data from Project Viva and Project ACCESS, two cohort studies of pregnant women and their children.

Specific Aims:
To test the hypotheses that:
1. Physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood, in adulthood, and/or during pregnancy are associated with antenatal and postpartum depression.  High levels of social support during pregnancy and the postpartum period mitigate the impact of abuse.
2. Experience of racial discrimination is associated with antenatal and postpartum depression among women of color.
3.Levels of CRH during pregnancy are associated with a history of depression, are correlated with antenatal depression, and predict postpartum depression.
4. Elevated morning cortisol and/or depressed evening cortisol levels in late pregnancy and/or the first postpartum months are associated with postpartum depression.

Maternal Fatty Acids, Birth Weight and Child Development

Grant received by: Oken (HPHC)
Grant number: K23 HD 044807
Dates active: 8/01/03—7/30/08
Funding Institution: NICHD

Objective:
To gain a better understanding of the independent associations of relative prenatal n-3 and n-6 fatty acid exposure with offspring health, and increased knowledge about characteristics of mothers consuming higher ratios of n-3:n-6 fatty acids, in order to inform dietary recommendations for pregnant women.

Specific Aims:
1. To determine the extent to which the ratio of n-3:n-6 fatty acids consumed by a mother during pregnancy is related to:

A. Fetal growth and length of gestation
B. Offspring neurological development, assessed through:
*I. visual acuity at age 6 months
*II. cognition at ages 6 months and 3 years

2. To determine the extent to which the ratio of n-3:n-6 fatty acids in maternal erythrocytes collected during the second trimester of pregnancy is related to:

A. Fetal growth and length of gestation
B. Dietary intake of the same nutrients

3. To examine factors contributing to a maternal diet with a low ratio of n-3:n-6 fatty acids.

Funded Assays:
RBC fatty acids - mom: 1551 collected at 2nd Trimester. Analysis completed

Nutrition in Pregnancy, Birth Weight, and Childhood Asthma
(Dietazma) – Research Supplement

Grant received by: Gillman (HPHC)
Grant number: R01 HL64925
Dates active: 09/05/03-7/31/05
Funding Institution: NHLBI

Objective:
To examine relations of early childhood growth and development of asthma and related disorders in a large prospective longitudinal cohort study of pregnancy women and children.

Specific Aims:
1. To examine the associations of early childhood growth and overweight status with development of asthma and asthma-related symptoms by 3 years.
2. To examine differences between blacks and whites in rates of overweight and asthma, and to address the extent to which differential rates of overweight explain the different asthma rates.

Red Blood Cell and Plasma Levels of N-3 Fatty Acids

Grant received by: Gillman (HPHC)
Dates active: 12/01/04-12/31/05
Funding Institution: National Fisheries Institute

Objective:
To determine associations of maternal plasma fatty acid levels with maternal diet during pregnancy

Specific Aims:
1. Calibrate a food frequency questionnaire administered in the first trimester of pregnancy with plasma levels of elongated n-3 fatty acids, alpha-linolenic acid, and trans fatty acids.
2. Compare plasma and red blood cells as biomarkers of n-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and trans fatty acid intake.

Funded Assays:
Plasma fatty acids - mom: 268 collected at 2nd Trimester. Analysis completed

Maternal Fatty Acid Intake and Race/Ethnicity as Predictors of Fetal Growth and Length of Gestation

Grant received by: Oken (HPHC)
Dates active: 7/1/04—6/30/05
Funding Institution: HMS Scholars in Medicine

Objective:
To examine associations of prenatal intake of fatty acids with fetal growth and gestation length.

Specific Aims:
1. To determine the extent to which the ratio of n-3:n-6 fatty acids consumed by a mother during pregnancy is related to fetal growth and gestation length.
2. To explore whether differences in dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids accounts for some of the increased risk of reduced fetal growth among blacks.

Maternal Fatty Acids, Child Obesity, and Asthma Immunity (Immune)

Grant received by: Gillman (HPHC)
Grant number: R01 HL075504
Dates active: 08/01/04-04/30/08
Funding Institution: NHLBI

Objective:
To examine associations of maternal gestational fatty acid intake, fatty acid levels in offspring blood, fetal growth, and postnatal weight gain status with markers of allergy and inflammation at the age of 3 years.

Specific Aims:
To address the following specific hypotheses:
1. At 3 years, increased allergy-specific and total plasma IgE levels and increased levels of asthma-related proinflammatory cytokines from antigen (Der f 1, Bla g 2, Fel d 1)- and mitogen (PHA)- stimulated lymphocytes, are predicted by:

A. Lower maternal intake of n-3 fatty acids and higher intake of n-6 fatty acids during pregnancy.
B. Lower concentration of n-3 fatty acids and higher concentration of n-6 fatty acids in umbilical cord blood
C. In cord blood, levels of:
*I. Antigen-stimulated lymphoproliferative response,
*II. Antigen-stimulated lymphocyte production of proinflammatory cytokines.

D. Increased fetal growth, as represented by birth weight for gestational age at birth.
E. Increased body mass index at the age of 2 years.

2.:The associations of three main exposures – maternal fatty acid intake, cord blood fatty acid levels, and fetal growth – with the main outcomes – IgE and cytokine levels at 3 years – are partially explained by the lymphoproliferative response and levels of cytokines in umblilical cord blood.

Funded Assays:
1. Fatty Acids - cord: 466 collected at Delivery. Analysis completed
2. Allergy-specific IgE - child: 766 collected at Early Childhood. Analysis completed
3. Cytokines - child: 290 collected at Early Childhood. Analysis completed
4. Fatty Acids - child: 215 collected at Early Childhood. Analysis completed
5. IgE - mom: 201 collected at Early Childhood. Analysis completed

Longitudinal Study of Parental Child Feeding Strategies and Child Overweight

Grant received by: Gillman (HPHC)
Grant number: 200-2001-00074
Dates active: 09/01/04-08/31/06
Funding Institution: CDC/AHIP

Objective:
To increase the sample size for testing the hypothesis on the association between parental child-feeding attitudes and strategies and child overweight.

Specific Aims:
To examine existing longitudinal data on parental child-feeding strategies and child growth on a samples of at least 2000 mother-child pairs who participated in a Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) and were followed from the perinatal period to age three to examine parental child-feeding strategies, child intake, and child growth.